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- Urban region where the industrial base has undergone several upheavals, and the specific challenge in spatial development concerns the city itself; with segregation of housing areas and persistently high unemployment being key challenges. Type of location: Tampere.
- Inner periphery region close to metropolitan centre, where pronounced population decline and the removal of a number of essential service provisions (top-down process) calls for bottom-up and local policy responses. Rural or intermediate type of location: Etelä-Savo in southeastern Finland.