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- Metropolitan urban area, characterized by inequalities, as a case for coordinated cross-boundary management, strategic planning and decision making of city-region issues. Urban type of location.
- Centrally located (city-)region with low economic profile hit by economic crisis. Intermediate type of location.
- De-industrialisation and restructuring needs in a peripheral region with once strong regional economy. Intermediate type of location.
- Social exclusion in rural areas, where the remoteness of the area and the legacy of austerity policies has posed challenges for investment and the delivery of services. Rural type of location.