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  • Large-scale and long-term urban regeneration of a substantial district of a large city characterized by de-industrialisation, significant loss of low-skilled labour, high poverty, large ethnic diversity, strong pressure on primary and secondary education system and widespread maintenance problems in the private housing stock. Urban type: national priority area.
  • Bottom up regeneration of a former (partly industrial) deprived district that reflects various forms of citizen-based, community-driven area redevelopment strategies in which traditional actors (local government, housing associations, private developers) play a relatively marginal role. Urban type of location: Randstad.
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